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Groundnut Oil

Groundnut Oil (Peanuts) ›

Introduction :

Groundnut SeedGroundnut also called peanut is an oilseed derived from the fruit of the groundnut plant. It is grown in over 100 countries of the world and plays a crucial role in the world economy. The seeds are a good source of edible oil and proteins present in the groundnut oil cake. Groundnut seeds are a rich source of edible oil (43-55%) and protein (25-28%). Groundnut kernels are approx. 70% of weight in shells and kernels have an oil recovery of 40-42%.

Groundnut is the major oilseed crop in India accounting for 45% of oilseed area and 55% of oilseed production in the country. Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is believed to be the native of Brazil to Peru, Argentina and Ghana, from where it was introduced into Jamaica, Cuba and other West Indies islands. It was introduced into India during the first half of the sixteenth century from one of the Pacific islands of China, where it was introduced earlier from either Central America or South America. Now India along with china accounts for half of the world's groundnut production.

Global Scenario :

Groundnut Seed Refined oilChina is the largest producer of groundnut in the world followed by India, Nigeria, USA, Indonesia and Sudan. Top groundnut oil producers – China (2.5 Million tonnes) and India (2 million tons). The other regions where groundnut oil is produced includes sub-Saharan African countries and central and southern America.

International trade in groundnut is thin due to high level of self-consumption by the producing countries. Only 7.7% of the world production is sold in the International market during 2007-08.Global trade of groundnut oil is about 1 lakh tons a year. EU and US are major importers. Senegal and Argentina are the major exporters.

Argentina, U.S and China are the leading suppliers of edible peanut in the world. India, Sudan, Nigeria, Senegal and Myanmar are also important producers of groundnut.

Indian Scenario :

India is rated as the third largest producer of groundnut in the world with annual production of over 5-6 million tons. Gujarat, Andhra Prrdesh, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka are the leading producers in the country and accounts for nearly 75% of the total output. Groundnut contributes to nearly 25% of total oil seed production in the country. Groundnut is the major oilseed of India. It accounts for around 25% of the total oilseed production of the country.

  • Major producers - Gujarat (1-3.5 million tons), Tamilnadu (1million tons), Andhra Pradesh (1-2 million tons), Karnataka (0.5 million tons), Maharashtra (0.5 million tons).
  • The area under groundnut in India is highest is in the world followed by China, Nigeria and Sudan. In productivity, USA is leading.
  • Major trading centers: Rajkot, Ahmedabad, Mumbai, Rajasthan, Indore and Delhi are the major trading centers.

Seasonality :

Nearly 75% output occurs in June-September and the rest during November-March known as khariff and rabi seasons respectively.

Factor influencing groundnut oil prices :

  • Weather at the major domestic producing centers. The southwest monsoon is the most important factor that determines the area sown, production and prices.
  • Price of other competitive oils in India, namely Soya Oil, Palm Oil, Cotton Seed Oil, Sunflower Oil and Mustard Oil.
  • International price movement of Soya Oil at CBOT and Palm Oil at BMD, Malaysia also influence the groundnut oil prices.
  • Festivals and celebrations also increase consumption and the prices.

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